Exploration is frequently referred to as the “Final Frontier”. However, some recognized scientists and space researchers see
the exploration of space, within our galaxy, as only the beginning of
space exploration. A few
current experts view exploration within our galaxy as the “gateway”
to new frontiers.
with breaking most distance barriers or when exploring new frontiers,
current transportation and communication methods were usually the
primary limiting factors that defined success.
As the horse was used to transport the previously foot-bound man,
the horse was also used to carry communications between frontier
outposts. Sailing ships
gave way to steamships and then to diesel engines.
Trains followed the same model.
Transportation and communications moved at the same pace.
earth bound transportation methods advanced, the new technology and its
application increased the volume and the speed of communication. As man improved his own transportation, he quickly applied
the new methods to the transportation of goods and services and
communications. What once
took years or months to transport or to communicate over a given
distance soon became reduced to weeks or days.
Increased commerce and communications followed accordingly.
most frequently significant technological change often results in
quantum leaps forward. The
invention of the telegraph and the telephone caused a rapid acceleration
in both communication speed and volume.
Communications were no longer limited or tied to the traditional
methods of written correspondence and physical transportation methods.
Seaways gave way to airways and land routes gave way to
landlines. Communication suddenly outpaced transportation.
cursory review of the advances in sea, land and air transportation over
the past century would conclude it has been remarkable, but restricted
by limited technological advances.
Unfortunately, the development of space transportation has also
been largely limited to a lack of technological advancements. An
objective examination of rocket engine development would disclose that,
albeit much has been accomplished, it has been generally restricted to
the refinement of existing technology and lacking in real advancement.
Todayâ€™s propulsion systems remain much the same as created
fifty years ago. Some have
advanced in size or in scale and others by refining their application.
However, future space exploration requires major advancement in
a similar review of the progress made in communications over the past
fifty years would find it has not only been remarkable, but it seems to
be unlimited, as technology advancements accelerate.
Thus, communications technology applications have expanded
Dr. Arthur C. Clark defined the “Clark Orbit”, few experts realized
the significance of its potential or the magnitude of its application in
the future, out of which the satellite communication industry developed.
The Clark Orbit or the “geostationary orbit”, where a
satellite appears to be stationary, as it rotates with the earth, has
become prized space real estate. Today,
approximately 150 orbital positions are occupied by over 210 satellites
in the “geosynchronous orbit”, at 22,000 miles altitude above the
addition, military, science and commercial interests have developed the
use of satellite orbits other than the GEO or geosynchronous orbit.
Satellites now rotate above the earth at various altitudes in
orbits called “LEO” (from 100 to 5,000 miles altitude), for Low
Earth Orbit, MEO” (from 5,000 to 10,000 miles altitude), for Medium
Earth Orbit, as well as in Elliptical and Sun synchronous orbits.
Each of these orbits has different satellite uses and various
communications technology applications.
demand for more and faster communications develops, satellites are
expanding in size, in quantity and in their applications to satisfy
commercial demands. In the
past decade the average size of a communication satellite has doubled,
from 3,000lbs to around 6,000lbs. In
the same decade the quantity of satellites delivered to space has more
than double, when all orbits are considered.
At the same time, satellite technology has advance dramatically,
with more communications processing capability incorporated into ever
increasing sizes. Satellites
have increased in transponder count, in antenna size and in power
storage and power consumption capability, all to meet ever increasing
support of the increasing demands of the commercial satellite industry,
the commercial launch services industry has been required to respond
with ever increasing launch vehicle capability.
However, without significant technological improvements in
propulsion systems, the alternative was to develop even larger launch
vehicles. This obvious
solution to the demand for greater lift performance was met by adding
more of the same propulsion to some of the existing launch vehicles.
Some grew with strap-on solid rockets and others by building new
and even larger launchers using existing propulsion technology.
one may conclude that “space exploration” has been bounded by the
limitations of existing propulsion technology and systems.
The exploration of our galaxy is restricted largely by these
constraining technologies. The
manâ€™s exploration of space beyond our galaxy, a dream of many, is
essentially prohibited by the lack of advanced propulsion systems.
Obviously, there are major political, economic and commercial
limitations that restrict space exploration as well.
a result, todayâ€™s space exploration is more one of “space
development” or “economic exploration”.
Ward started his business career with General Dynamics Corporation in
1967. He has over 30 years
of experience in Aerospace, Telecommunications, Electronics and the
Commercial Space business. He
has twenty-five years of experience in doing business in Europe, Asia
and the Pacific Rim countries.
joined the Space Systems Division of General Dynamics in 1987.
He conducted all International Business Development activities
and International Marketing for a new subsidiary dedicated to providing
Commercial Launch Services globally.
He served as the Director of International Marketing, with
world-wide responsibilities, for eight years. In 1994, Martin
Marietta Corporation purchased the Space Systems Division and the
Commercial Launch Services business of General Dynamics Corporation.
1995, Ed Ward was promoted to Vice President and is now responsible for
Asia-Pacific Marketing and for Commercial Business Development, as part
of the merged Lockheed Martin Company, International Launch Services.
He has done business in over 25 countries, with multiple
customers and suppliers in many of those countries. During his 27
years at General Dynamics, Ed served in several new business development
and project management assignments.
He was the Corporate Director of International Business
Development for the Far East, Director of Planning and Market Assessment
at the Electronics Division and an International Program Director for
F-16 Test Equipment.
his early career he was a Director of Procurement and Materials
Management at two different General Dynamics commercial enterprises.
Ed was also President of American Hi-Lift Corporation, a
California commercial lift equipment company.
Ward was raised in Michigan and has a Bachelor of Science degree in
Pre-Law from Eastern Michigan University. Upon graduation he received a Regular US Army Commission.
He has a Master of Business Administration (MBA) at the
University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA). He also attended Law
School at the University of San Diego and the Stanford Executive Summer
Program for High Tech. Managers.
US Army Infantry Officer, he served in the Pacific and in Southeast
Asia. His citations include
the Commendation Medal, the Expeditionary Medal and the Air Medal.
He is a member of Beta Gamma Sigma, the MBA honorary society.
He has been affiliated with the NMA and AIAA, San Diego State
University, University of San Diego and the International School of
Management in San Diego.